The second most popular religion is Islam (6%) concentrated mainly in the Balkans and Eastern Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, North Cyprus, Turkey, Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, and the Volga-Ural region). The European Union is now the largest economy in the world.  France also staged a remarkable comeback enjoying rapid growth and modernisation; later on Spain, under the leadership of Franco, also recovered, and the nation recorded huge unprecedented economic growth beginning in the 1960s in what is called the Spanish miracle. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe's limits to the east and northeast are usually taken to be the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian Sea; to the southeast, the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Europe's present shape dates to the late Tertiary period about five million years ago.. By August, Germany began a bombing offensive on Britain, but failed to convince the Britons to give up.  In the 19th century, 70 million people left Europe in migrations to various European colonies abroad and to the United States. ... EU-Länder, in denen der Euro verwendet wird. The richer states tend to be in the West; some of the Central and Eastern European economies are still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of Yugoslavia. The boundaries of Europe were historically understood as those of Christendom (or more specifically Latin Christendom), as established or defended throughout the medieval and early modern history of Europe, especially against Islam, as in the Reconquista and the Ottoman wars in Europe.. 2003. Probably 80 to 90 percent of Europe was once covered by forest. , The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages. The total figures for area and population include only European portions of transcontinental countries. By the Middle Ages the bears' habitats were limited to more or less inaccessible mountains with sufficient forest cover. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. According to the current convention, Georgia and Azerbaijan are transcontinental countries where waterways have been completely replaced by mountains as the divide between continents.  Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento and cinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci. Thomas E. Woods and Antonio Canizares, 2012, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization," Reprint edn., Washington, DC: Regnery History, single federation encompassing much of the continent, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia, England tried unsuccessfully to invade Spain, German-speakers from all over Eastern Europe, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, Area and population of European countries, Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (nominal), List of sovereign states in Europe by GDP (PPP), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, List of sovereign states by date of formation, Names of European cities in different languages, List of European cities by population within city limits, Largest urban areas of the European Union, Financial and social rankings of European countries, List of European countries by GDP (nominal), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "The European union—a federation or a confederation? However, his idea to use major rivers almost exclusively as the line of demarcation was never taken up by other geographers. C. Scribner, p. 400, "One decisive action might have forced Philip II to the negotiating table and avoided fourteen years of continuing warfare. established the NATO alliance and later the Soviet Union and Central Europe established the Warsaw Pact. Today, the brown bear lives primarily in the Balkan peninsula, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number also persist in other countries across Europe (Austria, Pyrenees etc. The climate is milder in comparison to other areas of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. This English decisive disaster also allowed the Spanish fleet to retain its capability to wage war for the next decades. In May 1940, Germany attacked France through the Low Countries. In the mid 7th century CE, following the Muslim conquest of Persia, Islam penetrated into the Caucasus region. .eu, .  Europe's population increased from about 100 million in 1700 to 400 million by 1900. Romance languages are spoken primarily in Western and Southern Europe, as well as in Switzerland in Central Europe and Romania and Moldova in Eastern Europe. Early Iron Age Italy and Greece from around the 8th century BCE gradually gave rise to historical Classical antiquity, whose beginning is sometimes dated to 776 BCE, the year the first Olympic Games.. Four years later, in 1725, Philip Johan von Strahlenberg was the first to depart from the classical Don boundary by proposing that mountain ranges could be included as boundaries between continents whenever there were deemed to be no suitable waterways, the Ob and Irtysh Rivers notwithstanding. The current division of Eurasia into two continents now reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. Western democratic and rationalist culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece. Ferdinand Magellan reached Asia westward across the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in the Spanish expedition of Magellan-Elcano, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano (1519–1522). Europe and England in the sixteenth century. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons), who appeared in Europe around 43,000 to 40,000 years ago. August 1989 war ein Test für Gorbatschows“ (German - August 19, 1989 was a test for Gorbachev), In: FAZ 19 August 2009. As a name for a part of the known world, it is first used in the 6th century BC by Anaximander and Hecataeus.  Italy was also in a poor economic condition but regained a high level of growth by the 1950s.  Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia.  Within this context, significant disparities exist between regions in relation to fertility rates. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. However the Europe-Asia part of the border is somewhat arbitrary and inconsistent with this definition because of its partial adherence to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains rather than a series of partly joined waterways suggested by cartographer Herman Moll in 1715. Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU).  The Soviet invasion of Poland started on 17 September and Poland fell soon thereafter. This ratio was the world's third highest after Japan and Zimbabwe. West Germany recovered quickly and had doubled production from pre-war levels by the 1950s.  2.4 million immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017.  As with other continents, Europe has a large variation of wealth among its countries. In 1938, Austria became a part of Germany following the Anschluss.  Slavic languages are mostly spoken in Southern, Central and Eastern Europe.  In 2012 Europe had the world's largest Christian population.. , In the 1980s the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev and the Solidarity movement in Poland weakened the previously rigid communist system. The Christian kingdoms were mainly focussed on their own internal power struggles. The European Union has been the focus of economic integration on the continent since its foundation in 1993. Europe has about 225 indigenous languages, mostly falling within three Indo-European language groups: the Romance languages, derived from the Latin of the Roman Empire; the Germanic languages, whose ancestor language came from southern Scandinavia; and the Slavic languages. , While the Roman empire in the west continued to decline, Roman traditions and the Roman state remained strong in the predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. 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Between 4500 and 3000 BC, these central European neolithic cultures developed further to the west and the north, transmitting newly acquired skills in producing copper artifacts. To the East, the Kievan Rus expanded from its capital in Kyiv to become the largest state in Europe by the 10th century. Other Indo-European languages outside the three main groups include the Baltic group (Latvian and Lithuanian), the Celtic group (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton), Greek, Armenian, and Albanian. The Phoney War continued. Thomas Roser: DDR-Massenflucht: Ein Picknick hebt die Welt aus den Angeln (German – Mass exodus of the GDR: A picnic clears the world) In: Die Presse 16 August 2018.  Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914 to 1918. ", UN predicts huge migration to rich countries, Rich world needs more foreign workers: report, "Europe: Population and Migration in 2005", EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008, "Migration and migrant population statistics", "A pena do degredo nas Ordenações do Reino", "Ensaio sobre a imigração portuguesa e os padrões de miscigenação no Brasil", "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America", "Work in progress: Indirect passage from Europe Transmigration via the UK, 1836–1914", Language facts – European day of languages, "Istanbul one of four anchor megacities of Europe: Research", "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps", "Regional Distribution of Christians: Christianity in Europe", accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people – Catholic included – often realize. World War I and especially World War II diminished the eminence of Western Europe in world affairs. [circular reference], Religion in Europe according to the Global Religious Landscape survey by the Pew Forum, 2012, The largest religion in Europe is Christianity, with 76.2% of Europeans considering themselves Christians, including Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and various Protestant denominations. The Middle Ages on the mainland were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy.  In 2017, approximately 825,000 persons acquired citizenship of an EU28 member state.  The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of Europe's ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. , In general, Europe is not just colder towards the north compared to the south, but it also gets colder from the west towards the east.  From the Union of Krewo (1385) east-central Europe was dominated by the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Today wolves (carnivores) and bears (omnivores) are endangered.  In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia, France rose to predominance within Europe. World War II, again, damaged much of Europe's industries.  The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia). Glaciation during the most recent ice age and the presence of man affected the distribution of European fauna. Economies were disrupted by World War I but by the beginning of World War II they had recovered and were having to compete with the growing economic strength of the United States. ), but in these areas brown bear populations are fragmented and marginalised because of the destruction of their habitat.  After the collapse of Mongol dominions, the first Romanian states (principalities) emerged in the 14th century: Moldavia and Walachia. Euro (davon Deutschland 15,17 Mrd. By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe comprising the five largest European economies of the time namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain. By the mid-19th century, there were three main conventions, one following the Don, the Volga–Don Canal and the Volga, the other following the Kuma–Manych Depression to the Caspian and then the Ural River, and the third abandoning the Don altogether, following the Greater Caucasus watershed to the Caspian.  Formal recognition of the de facto independent principalities of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania ensued at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. The precision of these figures is compromised by the ambiguous geographical extent of Europe and the lack of references for European portions of transcontinental countries. Euro bereit. All have over 10 million residents, and as such have been described as megacities.  Europe's most significant feature is the dichotomy between highland and mountainous Southern Europe and a vast, partially underwater, northern plain ranging from Ireland in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east.  Between 2004 and 2013, more Central and Eastern European countries began joining, expanding the EU to 28 European countries, and once more making Europe a major economical and political centre of power. Greece was followed by Rome, which left its mark on law, politics, language, engineering, architecture, government and many more key aspects in western civilisation. Vertrag von Nizza. At the same time decolonisation, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa.  In 2009 Europe remained the wealthiest region. This and the Wall Street Crash of 1929 brought about the worldwide Great Depression. , There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" (said of the sun) or Phoenician 'ereb "evening, west", which is at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. However, in many cases monoculture plantations of conifers have replaced the original mixed natural forest, because these grow quicker. The Greek government-debt crisis was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.Widely known in the country as The Crisis (Greek: Η Κρίση), it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. This territory, under the Arabic name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad Caliphate. Once they were found in most parts of Europe.  Other hominin remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Atapuerca, Spain. Society for Nautical Research., 1990. Previously, these territories were under the successive control of Pechenegs and Cumans. It is notable how the average temperatures for the coldest month, as well as the annual average temperatures, drop from the west to the east. World War I was fought between 1914 and 1918. ... • Größere Auswahl und stabilere Preise für Verbraucher • Engere wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen EU-Ländern Der Euro wird im gesamten Euroraum verwendet. Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country divided entirely by water, while Russia and Kazakhstan are only partly divided by waterways. A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianised western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy. Tax revenues for 2014 were â¬86 billion (about 48% GDP), while expenditures were â¬89.5 billion (about 50% GDP).  The invaders, who became known as Tatars, were mostly Turkic-speaking peoples under Mongol suzerainty.  The Thirty Years War (1618–1648) crippled the Holy Roman Empire and devastated much of Germany, killing between 25 and 40 percent of its population. In parallel, the Eastern Question grew more complex ever since the Ottoman defeat in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774).  Although much of this border is over land, Europe is generally accorded the status of a full continent because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Southern Europe could be described as having a warm, but mild climate. Important animals that live in European seas are zooplankton, molluscs, echinoderms, different crustaceans, squids and octopuses, fish, dolphins, and whales. The Mariner's mirror, Volumes 76–77. During recent times, deforestation has been slowed and many trees have been planted. Maltese is the only Semitic language that is official within the EU, while Basque is the only European language isolate. (2017), p 59; Jacob Franks "The Blu Banana - the True Heart of Europe" In: Big Think Edge, 31.12.2014; Zacharias Zacharakis: Chinas Anker in Europa in: Die Zeit 8. Robert Stradling "Teaching 20th-century European history" (2003), pp 61. The unemployment rate rose from below 10% (2005â2009) to around 25% (2014â2015). Malta was considered an island of Northwest Africa for centuries, but now it is considered to be part of Europe as well.  The Corded Ware cultural horizon flourished at the transition from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic.  Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. The term "Europe" is first used for a cultural sphere in the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century.  Europe's eastern frontier was defined in the 1st century by geographer Strabo at the River Don. The conditions for growth are very favourable. Kennedy, Hugh (1995). Prior to the adoption of the current convention that includes mountain divides, the border between Europe and Asia had been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity, but always as a series of rivers, seas, and straits that were believed to extend an unknown distance east and north from the Mediterranean Sea without the inclusion of any mountain ranges. For other uses, see. , Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. During the High Middle Ages the population of Europe experienced significant growth, culminating in the Renaissance of the 12th century. Der Europarat ist ein Forum für Debatten über allgemeine europäische Fragen. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLaiouMorisson2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPounds1979 (. The first recorded usage of Eurṓpē as a geographic term is in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo, in reference to the western shore of the Aegean Sea. It Has No Right to Lecture Greece, "Germany and the crisis of the periphery", "Germany has profited 100billion euros by the Greek economic crisis", "Time for Flush Germany to Put Europe First", "The EU's Dirty Secret: Germany Is The Biggest Welfare Recipient There Is", "The Euro Payoff: Germany's Economic Advantages from a Large and Diverse Euro Area", "Germany Profiteering from Euro Crisis Through Low Interest Rates", "Analysis: What taxpayer bailouts? Germany re-expanded and took back the Saarland and Rhineland in 1935 and 1936. As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire seemed imminent, the Great Powers struggled to safeguard their strategic and commercial interests in the Ottoman domains. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the 18th century, the traditional division of the landmass of Eurasia into two continents, Europe and Asia, followed Ptolemy, with the boundary following the Turkish Straits, the Black Sea, the Kerch Strait, the Sea of Azov and the Don (ancient Tanais).  Excess deaths in Russia over the course of World War I and the Russian Civil War (including the postwar famine) amounted to a combined total of 18 million.  During this period, more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe. ), Dublin:Four Courts Press. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade against Muslims occupying Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The British hoped to land at Narvik and send troops to aid Finland, but their primary objective in the landing was to encircle Germany and cut the Germans off from Scandinavian resources. The 20th century saw the revival of Neopaganism through movements such as Wicca and Druidry.  The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. It was a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church and led to increased persecution of Jews, beggars, and lepers.  Languages in adjacent areas show significant overlaps (such as in English, for example). After World War II the economy of the UK was in a state of ruin, and continued to suffer relative economic decline in the following decades. The term "continent" usually implies the physical geography of a large land mass completely or almost completely surrounded by water at its borders.  The year 1859 saw the unification of Romania, as a nation-state, from smaller principalities. Spain and Portugal, the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world. It includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Von 2000 bis 2003 standen als Heranführungshilfen für die zehn beitrittswilligen mittel- und osteuropäischen Länder jährlich 3,12 Mrd. The Battle of Kursk, which involved the largest tank battle in history, was the last major German offensive on the Eastern Front. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River (the modern Rioni River on the territory of Georgia) in the Caucasus, a convention still followed by Herodotus in the 5th century BC.  The primary source of culture in this period came from the Roman Catholic Church. The three who chose to remain outside the Eurozone were: the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden. The yearly average temperature in city of Inverness is 9.05 °C (48.29 °F). Among Protestants, the most popular are historically state-supported European denominations such as Lutheranism, Anglicanism and the Reformed faith. Michael Frank: Paneuropäisches Picknick – Mit dem Picknickkorb in die Freiheit (German: Pan-European picnic - With the picnic basket to freedom), in: Süddeutsche Zeitung 17 May 2010. Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilisation, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states, of which Russia is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe makes up the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass. The origins of many of the world's most popular sports today lie in the codification of many traditional games, especially in Great Britain. Asia. European wild cat, foxes (especially the red fox), jackal and different species of martens, hedgehogs, different species of reptiles (like snakes such as vipers and grass snakes) and amphibians, different birds (owls, hawks and other birds of prey). Europe covers about 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area), making it the second smallest continent (using the seven-continent model).  In 1967 the EEC, European Coal and Steel Community and Euratom formed the European Community, which in 1993 became the European Union. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, Socrates and Plato; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer; in drama with Sophocles and Euripides, in medicine with Hippocrates and Galen; and in science with Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes. Michael A. Barry: "L'Europe et son mythe : à la poursuite du couchant". Europe has become a relatively secular continent, with an increasing number and proportion of irreligious, atheist and agnostic people, who make up about 18.2% of Europe's population, currently the largest secular population in the Western world. Historically, religion in Europe has been a major influence on European art, culture, philosophy and law. A century ago, Europe had nearly a quarter of the world's population. Different cultural events are organised in Europe, with the aim of bringing different cultures closer together and raising awareness of their importance, such as the European Capital of Culture, the European Region of Gastronomy, the European Youth Capital and the European Capital of Sport. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak.  The last major famine recorded in Western Europe, the Great Famine of Ireland, caused death and mass emigration of millions of Irish people. This can be illustrated by the following table of average temperatures at locations roughly following the 60th, 55th, 50th, 45th and 40th latitudes. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. , Isolated monastic communities were the only places to safeguard and compile written knowledge accumulated previously; apart from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from Western Europe though they were preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe. There are frequent summer droughts in this region.  Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Pope in 800. Europe lies mainly in the temperate climate zones, being subjected to prevailing westerlies. However, no coordinated attempt would be made to drive the Moors out. Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly. Major shallow water bodies submerging parts of the northern plains are the Celtic Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea complex and Barents Sea. 27 European states are members of the politico-economic European Union, 26 of the border-free Schengen Area and 19 of the monetary union Eurozone. After the staggering Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, the German offensive in the Soviet Union turned into a continual fallback. It started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by the Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip. Public debt peaked at â¬356 billion in 2011; it was reduced by a bailout program to â¬305 billion in 2012 and then rose slightly. Around 1.1 billion years ago, Baltica and Arctica (as part of the Laurentia block) became joined to Rodinia, later resplitting around 550 million years ago to reform as Baltica.
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